Profile of complications of spontaneous subarachnoid haemorrhage in a tertiary care hospital

AUTHOR(s) : Baruah SK, Medhi J, Islam M.
DOI No. : 10.31741/ijhrmlp.v8.i1.2022.4


Background and objectives: Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) refers to bleeding within the subarachnoid space. The different short-term outcomes could be signs of delayed ischemic deficit, deterioration of the conscious level, motor deficit, aphasia, hydrocephalus and re-bleeding. When cardiac dysfunction is severe enough in some people, it can substantially lower the ejection fraction and result in heart failure. This paper aims to study the short-term outcome of spontaneous subarachnoid haemorrhage in a tertiary care hospital. Material and Methods: This was an institution-based observational study on 73 patients admitted to the Department of Medicine and Neurology, Gauhati medical college and hospital, Guwahati, Assam. All patients underwent a CT scan brain, CT Angiography along with MR Angiography of head and neck vessels and DSA (Digital subtraction angiography), if necessary. Based on CT scan brain findings, the patients were categorized according to Fisher's scale. Results: The age of the SAH cases ranged from 29 to 78 years, with a male: female ratio of 1:1.6. Out of the 73 patients, 86.3% of patients have developed various complications. Signs of delayed ischemic deficit were observed in 42.46% of cases, out of which deterioration of conscious level (24.75%) was the most common, followed by a motor deficit (12.32%) and aphasia (8.22%). Hydrocephalus (21.91%), re-bleeding (6.84%) and electrolyte abnormalities like hyponatremia (38.35%) were also observed. Diastolic dysfunction (56.94%) was the most reported cardiac complication. Conclusion: Neurological complications like signs of delayed cerebral ischemia, cardiac complications, mainly diastolic dysfunction and low than normal electrolyte levels like Hyponatremia and Hypokalemia were the most common complications of SAH.

Keywords: Subarachnoid haemorrhage; Aneurysms; Hypertension; Diastolic dysfunction.

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