An epidemiological study of traumatic brain injury cases in a tertiary health care facility in Guwahati

AUTHOR(s) : Lokesh V, Das PP, Sharma M
DOI No. : 10.31741/ ijhrmlp.v8.i1.2022.6


Introduction: Trauma meets the disease categorization requirements for a global pandemic. Despite efforts to mitigate its impact, it is a recurring and significant source of morbidity and mortality across time and continents. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to provide a more complete and descriptive review of traumatic brain injury cases in a high-volume centre like GMCH. Materials and methods: This prospective observational study included 1000 patients admitted to the surgery department at Gauhati Medical College and Hospital (GMCH) with traumatic brain injury (TBI). We have completed the data capture form for each patient, including all case details such as patient profile, prehospital care, type of injury, CT scan findings, clinical examination, neurological findings, and management details. We have analyzed the data to determine the critical variables and their impact on the final result. Results: The male-to-female ratio in our study was 2.91:1. According to the findings, sex distribution did not affect the prognosis of TBI patients. Patients ranged in age from 2 to 85 years. The majority (23.9%) of patients were between the ages of 22 and 31, with an average age of 33.5 years. Road traffic accidents were the most common cause of TBI (71.7%). In 77.4 % of cases, trained personnel administered first aid. Arriving at the hospital on time aids in giving fast management and a positive outcome. The current study observed excellent outcomes in 84.25 % mild, 80.14 % moderate, and 39.79 % severe TBI cases. Hemorrhagic Contusion was found in 58.79 % of CT scans. Conclusion: TBI primarily affects men in their third and fourth decades, most of which are preventable. Early transportation to the hospital and first aid by doctors or competent paramedics resulted in a favourable prognosis. Because mortality increases with TBI severity and accompanying injuries, a multimodality strategy in polytrauma is required.

Keywords: Clinical epidemiology, traumatic brain injury, Glasgow outcome score, multimodality approach, neurosurgery, tertiary care facility.

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